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五个基本句型:2015年职称英语语法-6

日期:2014-10-21 21:18:26  

  根据动词的特性,构成英语中五个基本句型:

  1) 主语 + 系动词 + 表语

  2) 主语 + 不及物动词 (+ 其他成分)

  3) 主语 + 及物动词 + 宾语

  4) 主语 + 及物动词 + 双宾语

  5) 主语 + 及物动词 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语

  我们在学习5个基本句型时,主要关心每个句型中的出题点在哪里。

  (一)第一句型:主语 + 系动词 + 表语

  1) 系动词一般为be 动词。

  注意:look, feel, sound, smell, taste, get, become, come, go, turn, grow, keep, seem, stand等词可以作"半系动词"用,按行为动词方式变化,起系动词的作用。

  试验比较:

  —— He felt the pockets thoroughly but did not find a single penny.(他摸遍了口袋但没有找到一分钱。—— feel为行为动词)

  —— You look pale. Do you feel unwell? (你脸色苍白,感到不舒服?—— look / feel为系动词)

  一般来说,动词后面跟的是个形容词或名词,该动词为系动词, 如:The plan sounds perfect. / The flower smells nice. / The dish tastes delicious. / It is getting dark.

  实例:

  "Don't worry. Let me take your pulse first." "Oh, it ______ normal." (脉搏正常)

  A. is felt

  B. is feeling

  C. feels

  D. felt

  解题思路:normal为形容词,前面应为系动词;系动词没有被动语态,故A不对; look, feel, sound, taste, smell, seem等半系动词一般不用进行时,B也不对;D时态错了,故正确答案为C.

  2)there be是英语中非常重要的一个句型: there是引导词,不解释 "那里"; 这是个倒装句, 主语在be动词的后面, be动词的单复数由后面的主语决定。

  注意中国学生容易搞错的问题:

  There isn't enough furniture in the room.(房间里家具不够)

  错:There hasn't enough furniture in the room.

  There is no doubt that smallpox has been wiped out in China.(毫无疑问,中国已消灭天花。)

  错:It is no doubt that smallpox has been wiped out in China.

  There is ample evidence that AIDS is spreading quickly in Asia. (充分证据表明,爱滋病正在亚洲迅速蔓延。—— 同位语从句)

  错:It is evidence that AIDS is spreading quickly in Asia. (可以: It is evident that AIDS is spreading quickly in Asia. - 主语从句)
   (二)第二句型:主语 + 不及物动词 (+ 其他成分)

  在这个句型中主要注意及物动词与不及物动词的区分:

  不及物动词 及物动词

  rise /rose / risen(升起) raise /raised / raised (提高)

  arise / arose / arisen (from)(产生) arouse / aroused / aroused(唤起)

  lie / lay / lain(躺下) lay / laid / laid(放下)

  arrive at(到达) reach(到达)

  wait for(等待) await(等待)

  remain(仍旧) maintain(保持,维修)

  *上面所注仅为典型词义,要根据句子判别其他意思。

  此外,该句型常采用倒装形式,注意辨别,主要是以下两种情况:

  1) 用here 或 there引导:Here comes the bus. (汽车来了。) / There rings the bell. (铃响了。)

  2) 在动词 + 介词短语的结构中,往往将介词短语提前:On the top of the hill stands a pretty little house.(山顶上有一座漂亮的小房子。)

  (三)第三句型:主语 + 及物动词 + 宾语

  我们知道,名词可以做主语和宾语,非谓语动词 -ing和 to do也可以做主语和宾语,

  作主语:

  Learning a foreign language is not easy.(学门外语并不容易。)

  To learn a foreign language is not easy. (= It is not easy to learn a foreign language.)

  从语法角度讲,上述两个表达方式都可以。

  但是,当动词处于宾语位置时,就不能这样"随心所欲"了,因为英语语法有以下几个规定:

  1)acknowledge / admit / appreciate / avoid / consider / contemplate / defer / deny / dislike / enjoy / escape / evade / excuse / facilitate / fancy / favor / feel like / finish / give up / cannot help / cannot stand / imagine / include / keep (on) / do not mind / miss / permit / practice / regret / resent / risk / suggest 等词后面的动词宾语必须用-ing 形式,重点和首先要掌握黑体字部分。由于这些次的词义与解题关系不大,没有给出具体词义解释。若需要,请学生自己查字典解决。

  这是语法考试的一个重点,要对以上词特别敏感,例如:

  It is impossible to avoid ______ by the stormy weather.

  A. being much affected

  B. having much affected

  C. to be much affected

  D. to have been much affected

  解题思路:1)一看到avoid一词,便可确定正确答案在A、B中; 2)affect意为"影响",及物动词,故B不对。[如果做题时间来不及,此类题目若有"主动语态"和"被动语态"之分,一般选"被动语态"的正确率高些。]

  2) remember / forget:后面既可跟 -ing, 也可跟 to do,但意思不一样:to do表示说话时还没有发生的事,-ing表示对已经发生过事的回忆,如:"我昨天出门时忘了关窗了。"显然是指出门时还没有做的事,因此用to do形式;"我不记得以前见过你。"显然是指说话以前的事,因此用 -ing形式,即:

  I forgot to close the windows when I left home yesterday.

  I don't remember seeing you before.

  因此,除了知道这个规定外,分清"发生过"还是"没有发生"是解题的关键。

  实例:

  Do you remember ______ to Professor Smith during your last visit?

  A. to have been introduced

  B. having introduced

  C. being introduced

  D. to be introduced

  解题思路:1)第一步要确定"发生过"还是"没有发生",即A、D还是B、C,"你记得上次访问时被介绍给Smith教授的情况吗?"显然是已发生的事,选B、C;2)"introduce"(介绍)后没有宾语,说明是"被动语态:,故选C [再看一下上一节中的 "解题思路"]

  3)need / want / require等解释为"需要"时,有两种表达方式,如:

  "这间会客室需要打扫一下"

  A.This waiting room needs to be cleaned. (to 被动式)

  B.This waiting room needs cleaning.(-ing主动式)

  考试时若同时出现两种选择,选B

  4)look forward to / object to / subject to / be subjected to / be opposed to / oppose to中的 "to" 是介词,后面应跟名词或动名词-ing,

  (四)第四句型:主语 + 及物动词 + 双宾语

  有些动词(主要是"授予动词")后面需要或可以接双宾语结构,如:give, write, buy, send, make等

  You may send him an E-mail or write him a letter.

  这个句子也可使用以下结构:

  You may send an E-mail (to him) or write a letter to him. 所以 "to" 和 "for" 是连接双宾语结构的重要介词。

  该句型的重点是要记住以下短语,特别是所用的介词:

  to cure … of(治愈…)

  to accuse …of(谴责…)

  to convince… of(说服…)

  to inform… of(通知…)

  to notify… of (通知…)

  to clean… of (清除…)

  to warn…… of / against (警告…)

  to cheat… of(欺骗)

  to rob… of(抢劫…)

  例如:

  We have to inform the family of the patient's condition as soon as possible. / Have the family been informed of the patient's condition? (我们得尽快将病人的病情通知其家属。/ 已经将病人的病情通知其家人了吗?)

  注意下面句子的结构变化:

  May I ask you a question? → May I ask a question of you?

  直接和间接宾语的位置与上面短语有何不同?

  (五)第五句型:主语 + 及物动词 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语

  先回顾一下本讲第一节中有关宾语和宾语补足语的概念。

  这个句型也是考试的重点,主要有三个难点:

  1) 要不要 "to"的问题:

  The director wants you to come right now. (主任要你马上就来。)

  句中to come 是宾语you的补足语。也就是说,当宾语补足语是动词时,一般要用 "to"连接。但是,以下情况例外:

  n make, let, have等使役动词,如:

  Shall I have him come here?(要我叫他来吗?)

  I won't have him cheat me. (否定式,表示"容许":我决不容许他欺骗我)

  上述句型变为被动语态时,一般要加 "to",如:

  The nurse made the patient eat something. (护士让病人吃了点东西。)

  →The patient was made to eat something.

  有时,宾语补足语也可用 -ing形式,如:

  His joke made us laughing for a couple of minutes. (他的笑话使我们笑了几分钟。- 注意后面的时间状语for a couple of minutes)

  记住下面重要表达方式:

  to have / get (something) done, 如:

  I am going to have (get) my watch repaired.(我去修一下表。)

  n see, hear, notice, observe, watch, look at, listen to 等感觉动词:

  使用原则与上述大致相同。

  2) 要不要 "it"的问题:

  先看两个句子:

  We sometimes find it difficult to get rid of a bad habit. (有时我们发现要改掉一个坏习惯很难。)该句的原始结构可理解为:We sometimes find (to get rid of a bad habit) difficult. 括号部分(动词不定式)为宾语,difficult为宾语补足语

  The doctor has made it clear to you that there is nothing wrong with your stomach.(医生已经跟你说得很清楚了,你的胃没有什么问题。)该句的原始结构可理解为:The doctor has made (there is nothing wrong with your stomach)clear. 括号部分(句子)为宾语,clear为宾语补足语

  归纳:

  n 在主语 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语结构中,当宾语是"动词不定式"或"句子"时,要用it(不是this, that或其他任何词)作形式宾语,将动词不定式或句子移到句子的后面去。

  n 考试时,判断要不要 "it",主要看句子后面有没有"动词不定式"或"句子",若有,要选 "it"

  n 宾语、宾语补足语倒装:当宾语(名词)较长,宾语补足语较短(往往是1个形容词,如possible, impossible, difficult, easy, clear等)时,为了句子结构均衡,往往采用倒装,这里不存在"it"的使用问题, 对下句作出判断:

  The development of ultrasound has made ______ early diagnosis of some fatal diseases. (超声波的出现使许多致命疾病的早期诊断成为可能。)

  A. it possible

  B. possible

  C. it is

  D. it

  该题的正确答案应为B,因为句子采用了倒装形式,原结构为:

  The development of ultrasound has made [early diagnosis of some fatal diseases] possible.

  宾语 补足语

  3) 记住以下短语:

  to take…as(把…当作…)

  to think of…as(把…看作…)

  to regard…as(把…看作…)

  to refer to…as(把…叫作…)

  关于五个基本句型,重点要掌握每个句型的出题点,举一反三。

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