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2015年职称英语考试知识解析:动词语态(1)

日期:2014-12-30 13:56:41  

      2015年职称英语考试知识解析:动词语态(1)

  动词的语态及主谓一致的原则

  2005年卫生类C级阅读理解部分文章

  From saving money

  (Where you save your money depends on what you are saving for). (1)If you are saving to buy a CD(光盘) or go to a concert, then probably you would keep your money somewhere in your room.

  (2)When you keep your money in a bank, your money earns interest. …(3)The bank uses your money to loan money to people and business.

  (4)The bank will send you a statement several times a year. (5)A bank statement tells you how much money you have in your bank.

  这篇文章的基调事态是一般现在时态, 用于对文章的主题”存钱”进行客观的讲述, 客观的分析在现在的生活中如何存钱.文章中句子的时态, 无论是主句时态还是从句时态一般都与现在时态相关

  要点回顾:

  主句和从句时态一致性;

  文章中相临语句时态通常彼此呼应, 一致;

  英语中的动词语态是用来说明句中主语与谓语之间关系的动词形式。英语语态有两种:主动语态(Active Voice)和被动语态(Passive Voice)。主动语态表示主语是谓语动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是谓语动作的承受者。我们在实际应用中经常会碰到被动语态的句子,如:

  理工类from Please Fasten Your Seatbelt

  “laser pulses are sent ahead of the plane and these are then reflected back by particles in the air.”

  被动语态的结构在职称英语的文章中, 甚至在考题中出现的频率都较高, 如:

  2005年理工类阅读判断文章The Smog

  But smog is not just an Asian problem. In fact, the word was first used in London in 1905 to describe the mixture of smoke and thick fog. … Sometimes the smog was so thick and poisonous that people were killed by breathing problems or in accidents.

  在文章后面的问题中被动语态也是频繁地被使用, 如:The Smog这篇文章后面的第6题:

  6. The forest animals haven’t been affected by the smog.

  如:阅读理解Pushbike Danger后的第2题:

  2. How many abdominal injuries in children were caused by bicycle accidents?

  在2005年理工C的考题中还有其他不少地方出现了被动语态的结构, 从上面的例子中我们可以了解到:

  1. 英语中被动语态的基本结构是: be + v.ed

  2. “be + v.ed”这个结构相当于中文中的“被”,“受到”等含义。

  3. 英语中的被动语态会有不同的时态表现形式,如:is caused; was caused; has been caused; had been caused等。

  绝大多数的及物动词和及物动词短语都可构成被动语态。不及物动词或不及物动词的短语动词和表示状态的词无被动语态。

  “主谓一致”(“主语和谓语人称和数一致性的原则”)的原则具体来说就是“主语的人称和数决定了谓语部分动词的形态”,我们刚才看到的那些句子中主语和谓语之间的关系也是受到主谓一致性的影响:

  Where you save your money depends on what you are saving for. (1)If you are saving to buy a CD(光盘) or go to a concert, then probably you would keep your money somewhere in your room.

  (2)When you keep your money in a bank, your money earns interest. …(3)The bank uses your money to loan money to people and business.

  (4)The bank will send you a statement several times a year. (5)A bank statement tells you how much money you have in your bank.

  在以往的职称英语考题中“主谓一致”这个考点会直接在完型填空题中出现。从近几年的职称英语考题来看—完型填空题把主要考察重点放在词汇/短语的词义辨析,词汇/短语的拼写形式的辨别, 和词汇/短语的搭配使用特点上。对“主谓一致”考察通常是间接地进行的, 最常见的就是考察对文章中结构较为复杂的句子句意的理解, 如:2005年理工类C级阅读理解的文章:

  (Almost Human)

  Machines that walk, speak and feel are no longer science fiction.

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