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2015年职称英语考试知识解析:动词时态(3)

日期:2014-12-30 13:56:42  

      2015年职称英语考试知识解析:动词时态(3)

  Ⅴ、现在进行时(The Present Continuous Tense)

  1. 形式:

  1) 现在进行时由助动词am, is, are+现在分词构成。第一人称单数用am,第三人称单数用is,其他人称一律用are。

  2) 现在分词由动词原形+ing构成,如learning, making, stopping等。

  2. 基本用法

  4) 用在此刻正在进行的动作。

  e.g. What are you doing here?

  5) 表示现阶段正在进行的动作,而此刻并不一定在进行。

  e.g. We are doing an experiment this month..我们这个月在做一个实验(说话时不一定在做实验)。

  3. 现在进行时态的否定结构:

  e.g. We are doing an experiment this month. – We are not…

  4. 现在进行时态的疑问句结构:

  e.g. We are doing an experiment this month. – Are you doing…

  练习与体会:

  (综合A/B级:Importance of services)

  These people argue that manufacturing jobs, which have been the economic foundation of America’s middle class, are vanishing. They claim that factory workers are being replaced with a host of low-wage earners.

  Ⅵ、过去将来时

  由“shall或will的过去式should或would+动词原形”构成。

  表示在过去某一时刻之后将要发生的动作或情况。过去将来时态如果出现在从句中, 则主句谓语动词通常是是一般过去时。如:

  e.g. We wanted to know when the English class would begin.

  过去将来时的否定和疑问结构:

  e.g. We would like to have some hamburgers.

  e.g. We would not like to have some hamburgers.

  e.g. Would you like to have some hamburgers?

  练习与体会:

  (综合A/B级:Plants and Mankind)

  From then on humans would increasingly make their living from the controlled production of a few plants….

  earn [get, make] one's living 谋生

  Ⅶ、过去进行时(the past continuous tense)

  过去进行时由“was (were)+现在分词”构成。

  表示过去某一时刻或某阶段正在进行的动作,通常带有一个表示过去时间的状语或时间状语从句结构

  e.g. We were having a meeting at two thirty yesterday afternoon.

  练习与体会:

  (卫生2002年C级阅读理解考题:On the Train)

  As he turned out his pocket to find enough money he saw the gentleman was watching him with amusement.. Donald realized that he was in quite an awkward situation, but the man was smiling.

  Ⅷ、过去完成时(The Past Perfect Tense)

  由"had+过去分词"构成该时态的谓语,各人称都一样。

  表示在过去某一时刻或动作之前已经完成的动作,这个到过去某一时刻为止的时间常用by, before等介词或连词引导的短语或从句以状语形式来表示。

  e.g. By the end of July last year, I had worked for forty years.

  注意:

  含有after, as soon as, before等连词引导的状语从句的复合句中,由于连词本身已明确动作发生的次序,所以,这个从句也可以用一般过去时表示,不用过去完成时。如:

  e.g. Students went out after the bell rang. 铃响后同学们出去了

  e.g. I informed him of the progress of the work as soon as I arrived here

  我一到这里就把工作进程告诉了他。

  练习与体会:

  (综合C级:The Cherokee Nation)

  The Cherokees refused to go. They had lived on their lands for centuries.

  When the last group arrived in their new home in March 1839, more than 4,000 had died.

  以下还有两种时态偶尔我们也可能会在职称英语的文章中遇到:

  Ⅸ、将来完成时(The Future Perfect Tense)

  第一人称:shall (will)+have+过去分词

  第二、三人称:will + have+过去分词

  表示在将来某一时刻之前完成的动作。如:

  e.g. By this time next year they will have built a hotel here.

  e.g. Hurry up! Or the train will have left before we get to the station.

  2005年理工类阅读理解部分考题文章:

  From Almost Human?

  Scientists are racing to build the world’s first thinking robot. That is not science fiction: some say they will have made it by the year 2020.

  Ⅹ、现在完成进行时(The Present Perfect Continuous Tense)

  第三人称单数:has + been+ 现在分词

  其余人称:have + been+ 现在分词

  表示从过去某一时间开始,一直延续到现在的动作,可能会继续进行下去或是到说话时结束,但强调到说话时为止一直在进行的动作。常与表示一段时间的状语连用。如:for years, since early morning等。

  e.g. They have been studying English for years.

  e.g. He has been done English since early morning.

  do: 处理;修理;收拾(房间等);洗;整(容);预备(功课);解答(问题)

  do the dishes 洗碗

  do one's face 整容,化妆

  do one's hair 梳头发,做头发

  do the room [kitchen]收拾房间[厨房]

  do one's homework 做作业,做功

  职称英语核心词汇推荐:

  base n. 底, 基础,基地v. 根据, 基于(be based on/upon: 基于);

  basic adj. 基本的,基础的,主要的,首要的;

  basis n.基础, 基本, 根据(on the basis of/ 以..为基础);

  basketball n. 篮球;

  battle n. 战役(指大规模会战), 战争;

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