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2015年职称英语考试知识解析:连词,代词及冠词

日期:2014-12-30 13:56:45  

  2015年职称英语考试知识解析:连词,代词及冠词

  连词,代词及冠词的语法功能及复习要点

  相关背景知识介绍:

  e.g. Where (…的地方)there’s a will(意志)there’s a way(道路). /有志者事竟成。(there be/存在句型)

  (2004年综合阅读判断试题)

  (from Riches and R omance from France’s Wine Harvest)

  (Riches (rich + es) 财富,财宝; e.g. the riches of knowledge 知识的宝库。)

  Traditionally, people used to take off their shoes and crush the grapes with their bare feet to bring out the juice. Nowadays, this practice is usually carried out by machines.

  used to: 过去常常…;

  take off:脱掉,起飞;

  bare:裸的,裸体的;无遮蔽的;

  carry out:开展;贯彻,实行,执行

  their –people;

  this (practice) -- take off their shoes and crush the grapes with their bare feet to bring out the juice

  小结:

  1. 代词通常前指,指代前文中出现的内容。

  2. 在确认代词的指代对象时,要注意该代词所在的结构在其所在句子中具有的含义。e.g. their (shoes) – people; their (feet) – people; this (practice) -- take off their shoes and crush the grapes with their bare feet to bring out the juice

  3. 同一句中, 相邻句中同一代词的指代内容一致;e.g. people used to take off their shoes and crush the grapes with their bare feet to bring out

  线索:时态。

  在职称英语中对连词和代词的考察主要出现在文章阅读中,就题型而言主要在完型填空,补全短文,阅读理解这样的题型中涉及到。而对冠词的考察主要是在补全短文和阅读理解这样的题型中出现。而实际上考题中大都是间接或直接地在对这几种词类进行考察。连词的考察一般直接出现在完型填空题和对文章句意的理解上;代词的出现表明该词与其所在句子的前句或后句之间指代关系,在代词的学习中一定要形成代词大都是前指的概念。如:看见that就应该知道该词是前指 --指代前文/刚才提到的内容,如:That is what he told me./那就是他所告诉我的话; After that he left./随后他就离开了。而 this可能是后指也可能是前指(绝大多数情况下是前指)。其作后指用是是指代下文或即将谈到的内容,如: Don't laugh when you hear this./听了这个你不要笑。

  生活英语常用句:

  初次见面:(在彼此获知对方的名字之后,就可以接着说:)

  1)--- Hello, nice/pleased to meet you. /--- Nice/pleased to meet you, too.

  2)---How are you? /---Fine, thanks. And you?

  3)---How do you do?/---How do you do?

  连词(conj.)

  连词主要在分句之间起逻辑连接作用。该词类的考察可能会出现在文章阅读中(间接考察)和完型填空题(直接考察)中。在完型填空题中有时会有1-3个题涉及到连词的选择。在复习中可以主要注意这几个常用的连词:and, but, while, when, because, though, although, if, as, as if, as though, as long as, as soon as, since(可以引导时间状语从句,表示“自从”,引导原因状语从句,翻译成“因为”) 。

  and“(表示并列或对称关系〕及,和,与,同;又,兼” e.g. a man and a woman;

  比较:e.g. a statesman and writer 政治家兼作家 (一般性了解)

  比较: e.g. my mother and I 我和我的母亲

  “〔表示结果〕然后”e.g. The sun came out and the grasses dried. 日出草干 (考点)

  “(用于连接行为动词,表示动作之间的先后顺序〕” e.g. Try and (= try to) do 试着做一做 / e.g. Go and(= go to) see 去看看吧 (考点)

  but“但是,可是,然而”e.g. He is rich, but (he is) not happy. 他有钱但是不幸福。not…but…(不是…而是…)(考点) e.g. He is not a soldier but a sailor. /他不是陆军而是海军)

  “只能,不得不” (考点)e.g. They had no other choice but [to] surrender. 他们别无选择,只能投降。e.g. I can not but admire his courage. 我不得不佩服他的勇敢

  e.g. This letter is nothing but an insult. 这封信完全是一种侮辱。 (〔加强语气〕简直,的确) (考点)

  “除(某人)以外,除了(某人)”e.g. No one replied but me. 除了我,没有别人回答。(考点)

  1. ___ he saw both surprised and frighten him.

  A. When B. That C. What D. whom

  主语从句。答案为C。空格所在的结构是主语从句,及物动词saw需要宾语。

  提示:that在名词性的从句中只具有语法功能, 不能在从句中充当任何成分。

  2. Tell me ___ you admired most?

  A. when B. why C. whom D. that

  宾语从句。答案为C。空格所在的结构在句子中作动词Tell的宾语,空格所在成分在句子中也充当宾语(admire的宾语)。

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