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2011年职称英语考试概括大意材料2

日期:2010-09-20 00:41:34  

第八篇         

Earthquake
1. Every year earthquakes are responsible for a large number of deaths and a vast amount of destruction in various parts of the world. Most of these damaging earthquakes occur either in a narrow belt which surrounds the Pacific Ocean or in a line which extends from Burma1 to the Alps2 in Europe. Some of the destruction is directly caused by the quake itself. An example of this is the collapse of buildings as a result of the quake itself. Other damage results from landslides3 or major fires which are initiated by the quake.
2. These are about a million quakes a year. Fortunately, however, not all of them are destructive. The intensity of an earthquake is measured on the Richter Scale4, which goes from 0 upward. The highest scale recorded to date is 8.95. major damage generally occurs from quakes ranging upward from 6.0.
3. The actual cause of the quake itself is the breaking of rocks at or below the earth's surface. This is produced by pressure which scientists believe may be due to a number of reasons, two of which are the expansion and contraction of the earth's crust and continental drift.
4. In order to limit the damage and to prevent some of the suffering resulting from earthquakes, scientists are working on ways to enable accurate prediction. Special instruments are used to help people record, for example, shaking of the earth. Scientists are trying to find methods that will enable them to indicate the exact time, location and size of an earthquake.
5. Certain phenomena have been observed which are believed to be the signs of imminent earthquakes. These include strange behaviors of some animals, the changes in the content of mineral water, etc. The magnetic properties of rocks may also display special pattern before earthquakes happen.
 
词汇:
vast [vɑ:st] adj. 巨大的    crust [krʌst] n. 地壳
belt [belt] n.带,带状物  drift [drift] n.浮动,漂浮
initiate [i'ni∫ieit] v. 引发,引起     accurate ['ækjurit] adj.准确的
intensity [in'tensiti] n. 强度   phenomenon [fi'nɔminən] n. 现象
rock [rɔk] n. 岩石       imminent ['iminənt] adj.  即将发生的
expansion [iks'pæn∫ən] n. 扩张     magnetic [mæɡ'netik] adj. 带有磁性的
注释:
1. Burma:缅甸
2. the Alps:阿尔卑斯山
3. landslide: 滑坡
4. the Richter Scale:里氏震级
5. The highest scale recorded to date is 8.9. : 迄今为止记录到的最高震级为8.9. to date : 迄今为止;到此为止。如:To date we have received more than a hundred applications. 到此刻为止,我们收到了一百多分申请书。
 
 
练习:
1. paragraph 2__________

A. Earthquakes Forecast

B. Historical Records of Earthquakes
C. Intensities of Earthquakes
D. Cause of Earthquakes
E. Indications of Earthquakes
F. Damaging Earthquakes
 
 
2. paragraph 3__________

 

3. paragraph 4__________
4. paragraph 5__________
  
 
5. Not all damage during an earthquake is caused ____________.
6. Not all earthquakes are strong enough ___________.
7. Scientists have been working hard to warn people ____________.
8. Earthquakes can be predicted by observing ______________.

A. by the quake itself

B. not be prevented
C. to cause damage of property and loss of lives
D. of a possible earthquake
E. the unusual behaviors of some animals
F. the strong behaviors of human beings
 答案与题解:
1.C 本段简述在里氏震级表上反映出来得不同震级。
2. D 本段简述了地震的起因。
3. A 本段介绍了科学家为预报地震所做的一些工作。
4. E 本段介绍了震前可能会出现的一些异常情况。
5. A 句中的被动语态 … is caused 提示可能会跟一个by 短语。
6. C 形容词加上 enough 后面常会跟一个动词不定式,文中第二段也降到有些地震震级不高,不会造成重大破坏和伤亡。
7. D 动词 ware 后面或跟 against, 或跟of, 警告别人将有事情发生。
8. E 动词 observing 候命应该有一个宾语,故应选一个名词短语。人类的行为变化跟地震并没有关系,因此F不是正确的选项。
 
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