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2011年职称英语考试完形填空材料1

日期:2010-09-20 00:47:01  

第七篇                                

Water
From the beginning, water has furnished man with a source of food and a highway to travel upon. The first civilizations arose ____1_____ Water was a dominant element in the environment, a challenge ____2____ man’s ingenuity. The Egyptians invented the 365-day calendar in response to the Nile’s annual flooding. The Babylonians, ___3___were among the most famous law-makers in ancient times, invented laws ____4____ water usage. Water inspired the Chinese to build a 1,000-___5___ canal, a complex system which, after nearly 2,500 years, remains still practically ____6____ and still commands the astonishment of engineers. But _____7____ never found complete solutions to their water problems. The Yellow River is also known as “China’s Sorrow”; it is so unpredictable and dangerous ____8____ in a single flood it has caused a million ____9____. Floods slowed the great ____10____ of the Indus River Valley, and inadequate drainage ruined _____11______ of its land. Today water dominates man ____12____ it always has done. Its presence continues to ____13_____ the location of his homes and cities; its violent variability can ____14___man or his herds or his crops; its routes links him_____15____ his fellows; its immense value may add to already dangerous political conflicts. There are many examples of this in our own time.
词汇:
furnish ['fə:ni∫]  v.提供          annual ['ænjuəl] adj.每年的
ingenuity [͵indӡi'nju:iti] n. 聪敏,才智 Babylonian [,bæbɪ`ləʊnjən] n. 巴比伦人
Egyptian [ɪ'dӡɪp∫(ə)n] n. 埃及人       dominate ['dɔmineit] v.主宰,统治
calendar ['kælində] n. 日历         variability [͵vεəriə'biliti] n. 多变
 
练习:  
1. A) where     B) the place    C) when           D) in the place
2. A) with       B) as           C) to              D) on
3. A) they       B) /            C) that            D) who
4. A) regulates B) regulate     C) regulated      D) regulating
5. A) miles      B) mile         C) mile’s        D) miles’
6. A) in use     B) for use       C) by use        D) on use
7. A) ancient    B) the ancients C) ancients      D) ancients people
8. A) that        B)/             C) because       D) which
9. A) people     B) deaths       C) damages      D) ruins
10. A) influence   B) effect        C) society        D) civilization
11. A) many      B) lot           C) much          D) a lots
12. A) for         B) as           C) because        D) whereas
13. A) govern     B) control       C) lead           D) influence
14. A) cause      B) violate       C) kill             D) damage
15. A) by         B) on            C) and           D) to
答案与题解:
1. A 这个句子的意思是说,最初的人类文明出现于水在周围的环境中起着重要作用的地方。所以要用where引导一个表示地点的状语丛集。又如:The young people should go where the country needs them the most.
2.  C 在英语中,表示“对……的挑战”的意思要用 a challenge to … 。
3.  D 这个句子的主语是 the Babylonians,谓语是后面的invented laws … 。可见,都好后面的成分要做补充说明用。根据已有的信息,我们可以推出这里who是正确的,它同后面的部分组成一个非限制性的定语从句,修饰主语。注意,that虽然也可以引导定语从句,但它不能引导非限制性定语从句。
4. D 这里只能填regulating,该词同后面的短语构成现在分词短语,修饰上文的laws。整个名词短语的意识是“管理用水的法律”。
5. B 当一个名词修饰另一个名词时,该名词往往用其单数形式(当然并非总是如此,下面这样的句子也是有人说的:We had a two weeks holiday.)。根据这一原则,1000-后接mile,像上文的 the 365-day就是遵循了这一原则。又如: a four-hour ride,a twenty-mile trip ,a five-room house, a six-storey building。
6. A remain in use 表示仍然在使用。 in use 是“在使用”的意思。又如:The textbook is no longer in use. If this is not in use, I’d like to borrow it.
7.  B ancient 既是形容词也是名词,the ancients 尤指古代文明的人。
8.  A 前文有so,这里应该填入that,that引导的小句表示一种结果。又如:The weather was so bad that the children stayed indoors the whole day.
9. B death 是可数名词,也是不可数名词。作可数名词时,是指某种类型的死(如:He died a natural death.)也可指死了多少人。 damage 是不可数名词,它的复数形式 damages 主要用在法律领域,指损害赔偿。如:The court ordered him to pay $1,000 damages to the person he had hurt. ruin 是不可数名词。可数形式ruins 常指“遗迹”、“废墟”等,如: The majestic ruins of Rome impressed her immensely.可以看出,在这三个选项中,只有deaths 是合适的。 cause 是使役动词,可以说“… it caused a million people to die.”但不可以说*“… it caused a million people.”所以填入people是错误的。
10. D 正确的答案是 civilization,意思是“印度河谷的人类文明”。
11. C 量词 many, a lot of, lots of 和much是一个连续统一体。具体地说,many只修饰可数名词,much是、只修饰不可数名词,而a lot of 和lots of 处于两者之间,既可限定可数名词,也可限定不可数名词。lots of 比 a lot of 在口气上更随便些。下面是一些具体的用 a lot of 和lots of 的例子:I remember a lot of things. / A lot of our land is used to grow crops for export. / There are lots of things I could do. / I want lots of food. 英语中没有lot of 和 a lots of 这样的两次, land在此处是不可数名词,因此,唯一合适的选择是much。
12. B 正确的答案是填入as ,此处的as 引导的是表示方式的状语从句,整个句子的意思是说“今天,水就像它一直控制人类一样仍然在控制着人类”。由于原文前后两个句子之间没有一种因果关系,所以填入for 或because 都是不对的。而whereas 一词通常表示对比关系,如:The boys are singing whereas the girls are dancing.所以填入这个词在语义上是不合适的。
13. A 这个句子的意思是说,水的存在决定着人们选择安家建城的位置。Govern 和control都有“控制”和“支配”的意思。Govern可以是人的支配,也可以使自然法则或自然力量的控制或支配。所以,govern是一个合适的词。lead的意思是“引导;领导”。Influence的意思是“影响”。
14.  C 如(9)中所说,cause是使役动词,只说“… can cause man or his herbs or his crops ”句子不完整。Violate一词的后面可以跟 a rule, a law,但不能说是man。Damage一词的后面常跟物质的东西,如a house, a village, crops等,也不能接man 。所以只有kill一词是正确的选择。注意 kill可以跟“活着的东西”,所以kill his crops 在语义上完全成立。又如:The cold weather has killed the flowers.
15. D link 一词可跟to 搭配,又如:The bridge links this city to that village.
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