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2015年职称英语考试知识解析:动词语态(3)

日期:2014-12-30 13:56:41  

      2015年职称英语考试知识解析:动词语态(3)

  主谓一致原则

  主谓一致是指句中的主语和谓语的一致。我们一般遵从三个原则:

  1、 语法一致的原则:

  语法一致的原则是指主语为单数或复数时,其谓语动词要与其相呼应。但我们要注意一些特殊情况;

  1) 以along with, together with, as well as, accompanied by, rather than, but, except连接的两个主语,其谓语的单复数以第一个主语为主。

  e.g. Several passengers, together with the driver, were hurt.

  e.g. All students but/except Tom are going to see the film.

  e.g. It is Mary rather than her students who is leaving for Beijing.

  2) 表示时间,重量,长度,价格等的复数名词,作主语从整体来看时,谓语动词用单数。

  e.g. Fifty years is not a long time.

  3) 非谓语动词,从句或其他短语作主语,谓语动词用单数形式。

  e.g. To eat an apple every day is healthful.

  e.g. What I want to know is when I could go home.

  4) 如果主语是由and连接的两个单数名词,但前面有each, every, no等词修饰时,谓语用单数

  e.g. Every boy and girl in this region is taught to read and write.

  2、 意义一致的原则:

  意义一致的原则指谓语动词的单复数取决于主语所表达的概念,而不取决于表面的语法标志,主要表现为某些集体名词后可跟动词单数或复数。如果这些集体名词指整体概念时,谓语动词用单数;指具体成员时用复数。类似这样的集体名词有:family, class, audience, committee, crowd, crew, group, population, team, public, council, village等。

  e.g. His family has lived there for more than twenty years.。

  e.g. My family are all well.

  e.g. The public/ the crowd is the best judge.

  3、 就近原则:

  所谓就近原则是指谓语动词单复数取决于离它最近的词语,而无须考虑其他的词。

  1) 以either…or, or, neither…nor和not only…but also连接的两个主语,其谓语的单复数形式应与离谓语最近的主语保持一致。

  e.g. Either you or he has to go there with me.

  2) 由there或here引起的主语,而又不止是一个时,采取就近原则。

  e.g. Here is a pen, a few envelopes and some paper for you.

  对于“主谓语一致”原则的直接考察一般是出自于完型填空题中,但现在职称英语出题的趋势是对这种语法点的直接考察题越来越少了,但这种原则的理解却能帮助我们解答一些文章阅读方面的问题。如:2002年综合类A级阅读理解第3篇文章:Effects of Environmental Pollution 一文中有这样一道题:

  The word "spectres" in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to

  A. pollution

  B. carbon dioxide二氧化物

  C. aerosols

  D. ghosts

  D. 分析: 文章相关句是:Two spectres haunting conservationists have hold: the prospect前途;形势that environmental pollution might lead to the planet's becoming unbearably hot or cold.该句中的two以及谓语结构 have been都说明"spectres"是可数的复述名词,所以可以直接排除A和B, 答案只能出字C和D, 现在有两个方法继续解题: 1. 借助字典, 查出"spectres"是“幽灵;鬼影”, C和D中只有D是“鬼,幽灵”,因此D是答案; 2。 借助句意或避重就轻借助上下文:接下来的一句说:One of these ghosts has now been laid, because it seems that even an increase in the amount of …,句子中的these ghosts(这些幽灵)表明这个短语的内容与前句中的相关内容(复数名词)呼应, 前句中的中的复数名词只有Two spectres 和conservationists(自然资源保护论者), 因此判断Two spectres和these ghosts呼应, 所以答案是D. 该题考察代词的指代内容.

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