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2015年职称英语考试知识解析:动词语态(2)

日期:2014-12-30 13:56:41  

      2015年职称英语考试知识解析:动词语态(2)

  被动语态结构

  Ⅰ、被动语态的形式

  被动语态是由be (助动词)+过去分词(及物动词)构成。be随主语的人称、时态和数的不同而变化。现将被动语态的各种时态形式列表如下(以provide为例)

  黑体结构是在职称英语考试中常出现的结构。

  注:

  ① 在美语中,will和would可用于各种人称。

  ② 被动语态的一般疑问句和否定句的构成:构成一般疑问句时,将主语后的第一个助动词提至句首; 构成否定句时,将not加在第一个助动词后。例如:

  Natural gas has been found in this area. (肯定句)

  Has natural gas been found in this area? (疑问句)

  Natural gas has not been found in this area. (否定句)

  ③ 带有情态动词的被动语态的构成:由情态动词can, may, must等加助动词be,再加过去分词构成。这些情态动词没有人称和数的变化。如:

  Such shops can be seen everywhere in the city.

  The composition must be finished next week.

  Ⅱ、主动句转换为被动句:

  主动句变为被动句是通过这样转换而实现的:

  1.把主动句的宾语转换为被动句的主语;

  2.把主动句的谓语换成被动语态;

  3.把主动句的主语前加by构成短语,放在被动语态的谓语之后。此by…短语根据需要而定,有时可以省略。

  如: We use coal   to heat homes.

  动作执行者(主语)   谓语   宾语(动作承受者)  状语

  Coal is used by us to heat homes.

  动作承受者 谓语 动作执行者 状语

  注:

  ① 带有介词或副词的短语动词,如call on, carry out, look after, take care of等用被动语态时,应视为不可分割的一部分,后面的介饲或副词不能丢掉,如:

  主动句:Grandma looks after my younger brother well.

  被动句:My younger brother is well looked after (by my grandma).

  接下来我们一块来分析几个选自《职称英语等级考试用书》上的句子:

  1. Cement was seldom used in building during the Middle Ages.

  (From Dyslexia )

  2. Dyslexia first was recognized in Europe and the United States more than 80 years ago.

  3 However, research has shown that dyslexia is more common in males than in females, and it is found more often in persons who are left-handed.

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