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2015年职称英语考试知识解析:动词时态(2)

日期:2014-12-30 13:56:42  

      2015年职称英语考试知识解析:动词时态(2)

  一般过去时态基本用法

  用于表示过去的某时刻或某一时期内的动作或状态。常与表明过去时间的状语连用,如yesterday, then, just now, that month, two days ago, 或由when或while等引导的表明过去时间的状语从句。

  e.g. We met him last month.

  e.g. They stayed at home yesterday.

  e.g. He was a doctor.

  一般过去时态否定结构的构成:

  1) 如果谓语部分是行为动词,在构成否定结构时, 需要在谓语结构中的行为动词的前面添加助动词did和否定副词,并且需要把原来谓语部分的过去分词结构还原成动词的原形。

  e.g. We met him last month.-- We didn’t meet him last month.

  e.g. They stayed at home yesterday.—They didn’t stay at home yesterday.

  2) 如果谓语部分是be动词, 在构成否定结构时只需要直接在be的后面添加否定副词not。

  e.g. He wasn’t out yesterday.

  e.g. There wasn’t anyone in the room just now. (anyone –anybody)

  一般过去时态疑问结构:简单提一下:

  e.g. We met him last month. – Did you meet him last month?

  e.g. He was out. – Was he out?

  e.g. he wasn’t out yesterday.—Wasn’t he out yesterday?

  练习与体会:

  (2004年理工Hurricanes)

  (1)Did you know that before 1950, hurricanes had no names? (2)They were simply given numbers. (3)The first names were simply Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, etc. (4)But in 1953, female names were given because of the unpredictability (不可预知) factor of the storms.

  Ⅲ、一般将来时

  1. 形式

  第一人称后接:“shall+动词原形”

  第二、三人称后接:“will+动词原形”

  注:在美国英语中第一、二、三人称都用“will +动词原形”

  2. 基本用法:

  用在表示将来的动作或状态:shall/will + v.

  〔表示预想、预言、猜测等〕〔第一人称用 shall〕将…,会。

  e.g. We will/shall win. 我们将会赢的。

  e.g. He will let you know. 他将会让你知道的。

  〔主语为第一人称时与未实现的意愿有关, 表示约定、意愿、主张、选择等〕要,想要

  e.g. We shall (will) go to Nanjing tomorrow morning. 我们明天早上要去南京。

  e.g. we will/shall invite you to our party. 我们想邀请你参加我们的宴会。

  e.g. I will/shall be a good boy for the future. 我以后想要做一个好孩子。

  3. 表示将来时态的其他形式与用法:

  1)“be going to+动词原形”表示很快就要发生的事情或打算要做的事。

  e.g. It’s going to rain. 天快要下雨了。

  e.g. We are going to/will visit Beijing next week.

  2)“be to+动词原形”表示安排好的动作或要求别人去做的事。

  e.g. You are not to bring any materials to the exam room. 你们不得将任何材料带进考场。

  e.g. He is to/will see me today. 他今天将要来看我。

  e.g. They are to/ will be married in May. 他们预定在五月结婚。

  3)“be about to+动词原形”表示即将发生的或正要做的事。

  e.g. The conference is about to begin. 大会即将开始。

  4)“be+现在分词”有时可表示按计划即将发生的一个动作,但仅适用于少数的某些动词(如arrive, come, go, leave, start等)而且常跟表示较近将来的时间状语连用。

  e.g. Our classmates are coming to see us the day after tomorrow.后天我们的同学将来看我们。

  e.g. The bus is leaving. 汽车就要开了。

  4. 一般将来时态的否定结构

  e.g. We shall (will) go to Nanjing tomorrow morning. -- We shall (will) not go to Nanjing tomorrow morning.

  e.g. It’s going to rain. – It isn’t going to rain.

  5. 一般将来时态的疑问句结构

  e.g. We shall (will) go to Nanjing tomorrow morning. – Shall/Will we go to Nanjing tomorrow morning?

  e.g. It’s going to rain. – Is it going to rain?

  练习与体会:

  (理工C级 Look after your Voice)

  If you are willing to change, you will soon be able to say that you will never forget these techniques because they became a part of your life.

  Ⅳ、现在完成时

  1. 形式:

  1) 现在完成时由助动词have(has)+过去分词构成。除第三人称单数用has外,其他人称一律用have。

  2) 过去分词的形式有规则的和不规则的两种。前者由动词原形+(e)d构成,如worked, used, studied, stopped等,后者如made, gone, written, cut等,须逐个记忆。

  2.基本用法:

  1)用于表示动作现在已经完成:

  e.g. We have just come back.

  e.g. She has written three books up to now.

  2)表示过去发生但对现在有影响的动作。可以不用时间状语,但也可和一些不确定过去时间的副词连用,如already, before, ever, never, just, once, recently ,yet等,例如:

  e.g. Who has broken the window? 谁把窗户玻璃打破了?

  e.g. We have never seen such a film before.我们以前从没有看过这样的一部电影。

  3) 也可表示过去某时开始的动作一直延续到现在,而且可能继续延续下去, 常和for引导的短语或和since引导的短语或从句连用。

  e.g. We have studied English for more than 10 years.

  e.g. He has lived here since he divorced Mary.

  3. 完成时态的否定结构

  e.g. We have seen such a film before. – We haven’t seen such a film before./We have never seen such a film before. /We have rarely/hardly seen such a film before.

  练习与体会:

  (综合C级The Barbie Dolls)

  Barbie has undergone a lot of changes over the years and has managed to keep up with current trends in hairstyles, makeup and clothing.

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