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2015年职称英语考试知识解析:句子结构(2)

日期:2014-12-30 13:56:44  

      2015年职称英语考试知识解析:句子结构(2)

  2004年的概括大意题也是对间接地涉及到了对“Instead of …”这个句子的考察。有一道概括大意题考察“Instead of …”所在段落的主题。这道题也可以走捷径:

  The company’s assembly line alone threw America’s Industrial Revolution into overdrive(高速运转) . Instead of having workers put together the entire car, 组装整辆车,Ford’s friends, who were great toolmakers from Scotland, organized teams that added parts to each Model T as it moved down a line. By the time Ford’s Highland Park plant was humming(嗡嗡作响) along in 1914, the world’s first automatic conveyor belt could turn out a car every 93 minutes.

  这个段落一共有三个句子, 其中第2句中出现了Ford’s friends(Ford的朋友), 这个短语揭示第2句是一个细节句, 第3句中出现了具体的时间(in 1914), 这也表明第3句是细节句, 所以判断该段的第一句是主题句, 该句中出现了“assembly line”, 因此判断B是答案。该句说“光是公司的装配线就把美国的工业革命投入到了高速运转之中”。

  提示:段落的主题句直接揭示段落的主题。

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  职称英语的长句子可能带有较多的附属结构如:动名词结构,不定式结构,分词结构,介词短语结构, 从句结构等, 而且该可能出现从句套从句的结构。尤其是在B级和A级的考题中, 甚至在一段文字中也可能会同时出现较多的复杂句子结构。如理工类Mobile Phone(B级:2002年理工类阅读理解考题)中的第一段:

  Mobile phones should carry a label if they proved to be a dangerous source of radiation, according to Robert Bell, a scientist. And no more mobile phone transmitter towers should be built until the long-term health effects of the electromagnetic radiation they emit are scientifically evaluated, he said. "Nobody's going to drop dead overnight but we should be asking for more information," Robert

  Bell said at a conference on the health effects of low-level radiation. "If mobile phones are found to be dangerous, they should carry a warning label until proper shields can be devised," he said.

  职称英语的句子结构特点归纳如下:

  1.长句子结构复杂: 句子中从句, 介词短语结构, 不定式结构, 分词结构等出现频繁,如:

  (2002年卫生类C级考题概括大意与完成句子:Health Education)

  In health education we must work with families, communities, and even regional

  状语 主语 谓语

  and national authorities to make sure that resources and support are available

  目的状语

  to enable each individual to lead a healthy life.

  (2003年理工C阅读理解文章Eta Carinae)

  The problem in observing Eta Carinae is that it has been surrounded by a cloud of gas

  表语从句

  and dust, making it hard to see the star directly.

  分词结构作表语从句中的结果状语

  句中还出现了形式宾语的结构: making it hard to see the star directly

  (2004年综合C阅读理解文章Home Heating)

  Home heating, which accounts for less than 7 percent of all energy consumed in the U.S., has had a commendable (值得赞扬的) efficiency record: from 1978 to 1997, the amount of fuel consumed for this purpose declined 44 percent despite a 33 percent increase in the number of housing units and an increase in house size.

  2.代词/冠词结构使用频繁, 有时指代关系较复杂, 而且常常是考点设置的地方, 如:

  (2002年综合类C级考题阅读理解:A thirsty World)

  The world is not only hungry, it is also thirsty(渴望的 (for) )for water. This may seems strange to you, since nearly 75% of the earth's surface is covered with water. But about 97% of this huge amount is sea-water, or salt water, man can only drink and use the other 3% - the fresh water that comes from rivers, lakes, underground, and other sources.

  问题: The phrase “the world” in the first line of the passage refers to

  A. you

  B. man

  C. woman

  D. they

  文章要读到“man can only drink and use the other 3%..”(该句说人类只能饮用其余的3%, 显然这说明了人类缺水, 因此人类渴望水, 这样该句的内容与the world所在的句子在内容上呼应, 对比这两个句子的内容判断B是答案. )才能让人读出“The world”的具体所指代的内容。

  (2003年综合类C级考题概括大意完成句子:Robots)

  It is estimated that 20% of all comic book heroes in Japan are robots. This is an enormous number because comics are so popular that they make up a third of all material published in Japan.

  这个句子中出现了三个代词: 形式主语it; 指示代词this(指代“20% of all comic book heroes in Japan”) they (指代comics)

  3.被动语态出现频繁, 如:

  (2002年卫生类B级考题阅读理解:Natural Medicine)

  Experts say almost 80% of the people in the world use plants for health care. These natural medicines are used not just because people have no other form of treatment. They are used because people trust them.

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