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日期:2014-12-30 13:54:03  


  Germs on Banknotes

  People in different countries use different types of 1 yuan in China, pesos in Mexico, pounds in the United Kingdom, dollars in the United States, Australia and New Zealand. They may use 2 currencies, but these countries, and probably all countries, still have one thing in common1: Germs on the banknotes.

  Scientists have been studying the germs on money for well over2 100 years. At the turn of the 20th 3 , some researchers began to suspect that germs living on money could spread disease.

  Most studies of germy money have looked at the germs on the currency 4 one country. In a new study, Frank Vriesekoop3 and other researchers compared the germ populations found on bills of different 5 .

  Vriesekoop3 is a microbiologist at the University of Ballarat in Australia4. He led the study, which compared the germ populations found on money 6 from 10 nations. The scientists studied 1,280 banknotes in total; all came from places where people buy food, like supermarkets street vendors and cafes, 7 those businesses often rely on cash.

  Overall, the Australian dollars hosted the fewest live bacteria ---- no more than 10 per square centimeter. Chinese yuan had the most ---- about 100 per square centimeter. Most of the germs on money probably would not cause harm.

  What we call “paper” money usually isn't made from paper. The U. S. dollar, for example, is printed on fabric that is mostly 8 .Different countries may use different 9 to print their money. Some of the currencies studied by Vriesekoop and his 10 such as the American dollar were made from cotton. Others were made from polymers.

  The three 11 with the lowest numbers of bacteria were all printed on polymers. They included the Australian dollar, the New Zealand dollar and some Mexican pesos.

  The other currencies were printed on fabric made 12 of cotton. Fewer germs lived on the polymer notes. This connection suggests that 13 have a harder time staying alive on polymer surfaces. Scientists need to do more studies to understand how germs live on money-----and whether or not we need to be concerned. Vnesekoop is now starting a study that will 14 the amounts of time bacteria can stay alive on different types of bills.

  Whatever Vriesekoop finds, the fact remains: Paper money harbors germs We should wash our 15 after touching it; after all5, you never know where your money 's been. Or what's living on it


  1. A coins B money C cheques D loans

  2. A different B clean C hard D foreign

  3. A anniversary B year C decade D century

  4. A along B with C within D outside

  5. A countries B areas C regions D provinces

  6. A delivered B borrowed C gathered D designed

  7. A because B though C when D where

  8. A plastic B rubber C cotton D paper

  9. A languages B colors C substances D materials

  10. A family B team C advisor D boss

  11. A expenses B banks C statements D currencies

  12. A nearly B mostly C likely D merely

  13. A dirt B water C germs D oil

  14. A compare B connect C conduct D command

  15. A arms B hands C face D clothes


  1.B 冒号后面说的是各国使用钱币的名称:“yuan in China ,pesos in Mexico,pounds in the United Kingdom ,dollars in the United States,Aus往'alia and New Zealand” ,所以填人的词必 定与这些钱币有关,而且应该是钱币的总括词。因此选 money 最为恰当。coins 是“硬币”,cheques 是“支票” ,loans是“贷款”,它们都不会是答案。

  2.A 本题的句子说的是:虽然各国使用的纸币各不相同,它们有一个共同点,那就是纸币上 有病菌。四个选项中 different 是答案。

  3.D 选century 最合理。选 anniversary (周年),year (年)或decade都不合逻辑。

  4.C 本段第二句提供了解答本题的线索。Frank Vriesekoop 的研究与以前的科学家的研究不同,他比较了各国钱币上的病菌数量, 在他之前的科学家的研究范围局限于一个国家的纸币。四个选项中只有 within 表达“在(一个国家)里”的意思。

  5. A 经过第四题选词的思索过程,本题的形容词很自然会在 different 之后用 countries,指不同的国家。

  6. C 上一句说 Vriesekoop 比较不同国家纸币携带病菌的数量。本题的句子明确指出他对比 的纸币涉及十个国家。四个选项中只有 gathered (收集)与上下文的意思相匹配。

  7. A 填词所在的句子与前面的主句存在因果关系。为什么要从食品店和食品摊收集纸币呢?因为这些地方常要用现金支付。本题答案是 because。

  8. C fabric 是“织物”,其制作原料不会是 plastic(塑料)或 rubber( 橡胶)。选 paper 也不对, 因为本句是说明纸币的制作原料通常不是纸。制作 fabric 的原料是 cotton( 棉花),这是合乎常理的。而且该段倒数第二句也提供了答案。所以答案是 cotton。

  9.D 本段说纸币的材料一般不是纸,通常是用棉花织物或高分子聚合物制作的。所以选择materials( 材料、原料)是正确的。

  10. B 本题应当选 team。与 family (家庭成员),advisor (顾问)或 boss (老板)合作研究不是 没有可能,但总有些离谱。与团队合作研究比较合理。

  11. D 本段第二句提供了线索,它列出三种纸币,即 the Australian dollar ,the New Zealand  dollar 和 some Mexican pesos。选 currencies 是最合理的。另外三个选项都不合适; expenses是“支出”,banks 是“银行” ,statements 是“账单”。

  12. B 本题只有选 mostly,上下文意思才连贯。

  13. C 前一句说用高分子聚合物制作的钱币含菌数量较少。本题的句子接着分析说,在高分子聚合物上存活较难。谁存活较难?当然是病菌。本题答案是germs0 dirt, water 和oil 是非生物,不存在生存的问题。

  14.A 四个选项填入句子后,句子成了: “…compare/connect/conduct/command the amounts of time bacteria can stay alive on different types of bills”, 很明显;connect (连接)/conduct (实施)/command(控制)amounts of time是无法成立的。只有compare(比较)不同纸币上病菌存活的时间才是Vriesekoop 要研究的新课题。

  15. B人们通常是用手接触纸币的。所以接触纸币后要洗手。答案是hands。

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