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2015年职称英语理工类概括大意加强练习(1)

日期:2015-02-23 13:50:01  

  The fridge

  The fridge is considered a necessity. It has been so since the 1960s when packaged food first appeared with the label: "store in the refrigerator."

  In my fridgeless Fifties childhood, I was fed well and healthily. The milkman came daily, the grocer, the butcher, the baker, and the ice-cream man delivered two or three times a week. The Sunday meat would last until Wednesday and surplus bread and milk became all kinds of cakes. Nothing was wasted and we were never troubled by rotten food. Thirty years on, food deliveries have ceased, fresh vegetables are almost unobtainable in the country.

  The invention of the fridge contributed comparatively little to the art of food preservation. A vast variety of well-tried techniques already existed -- natural cooling, drying, smoking, slating, sugaring, bottling…

  What refrigeration did promote was marketing -- marketing hardware and electricity, marketing soft drinks, marketing dead bodies of animals around the globe in search of a good price.

  Consequently, most of the world’s fridges are to be found, not in the tropics where they might prove useful, but in the wealthy countries with mild temperatures where they are climatically almost unnecessary. Every winter, millions of fridges hum away continuously, and at vast expanse, busily maintaining an artificially-cooled space inside an artificially-heated house -- while outside, nature provides the desired temperature free of charge.

  The fridge’s effect upon the environment has been evident, while its contribution to human happiness has been insignificant. If you don’t believe me, try it yourself. Invest in a food cabinet and turn off your fridge next winter. You may miss the hamburgers but at least you’ll get ride of that terrible hum.

  1. Paragraph 2 ________ A. The invention of the fridge

  2. Paragraph 4 ________ B. The pollution caused by fridges

  3. Paragraph 5 ________ C. The widespread need for fridges

  4. Paragraph 6 ________ D. The days without the fridge

  E. The waste of energy caused by fridges

  F. The fridge’s contribution to commerce

  5. Before fridges came into use, it was still possible for people to have fresh foods because ____________________.

  6. The invention of the fridge has not provided a new, economical way in which ____________________.

  7.An important contribution made by the invention of the fridge is that ______________.

  8. If you stop using the fridge, at least you won’t be troubled by the noise ____________________.

  A. milk, meat, vegetables, etc. were delivered

  B. it has promoted the sales of many kinds of commodities

  C. foods can be preserved

  D. most kids like iced soft drinks

  E. every housewife needs food

  F. the fridge produced when it is working

  参考答案:

  Passage 1:

  The fridge

  1. D。分析: 段首句(观点句)说“在我童年的时候还没有冰箱, 但是我吃的很好, 吃的是很健康的食物”,接着提到了“送奶工每天送奶,食品商等每周几次的送货” , 这在内容上是具体说明“没有使用冰箱时生活的情况”, 在该段最后一句中提到“三十年过去了, 供货者已经不再送食物(上门)了,…”,结合该句内容不难推断该段中前面部分的主要内容是有关“没有冰箱”时生活情况的描述,因此判断D (没有冰箱的日子)是答案。

  2. F。 分析: 段首句是观点句, 该句说“冰箱的确促进了市场销售”,而“marketing(市场销售)”这个词也是在段落中反复出现, 因此判断选项中应该出现与该词相呼应的词或内容, 因此判断F(commerce(贸易)与marketing(销售)呼应)是答案。

  3. E。分析: 该段段首句很长,但是注意到段首句中出现了由转折词but所引导的转折句(段首句/段未句中的转折分句处的句意往往很可能是段落的主题句), 该部分内容说“但是(世界上绝大多数的冰箱被发现是用在那些气候温和的,富有国家里, 这些国家从气候上说几乎是没有必要使用冰箱。)”, 借助这部分内容判断E(由冰箱所造成的能源浪费)是答案的最佳选项。

  4. B。分析: 段首句是观点句, 该句说“冰箱对环境的影响一直是很显著的(借助常识和背景知识, 我们能意识到这里所说“对环境的影响”是指“对环境的污染”), 而冰箱对人类所带来的幸福却是微不足道的”, 这个句子很明确地反映了作者的观点, 对比剩下的被选项, 判断B(冰箱所带来的污染)是最佳的选项。

  5. A。分析:空格所在句子的基本时态(主句时态)是一般过去时, 所以空格所在的结构(从句结构)应该是过去时态的一种,所以只有A, D,F可能是答案。从搭配语意(在冰箱开始使用之前, 因为牛奶,肉, 蔬菜等食物都会送上门, 所以人们仍然可能获得新鲜的食物。)上看, A最合适。

  6. C。分析:从搭配语意(冰箱的发明并没有提供出一种新型的, 经济的方法来保存食物。)上看, C最合适。

  7. B。分析:空格前面部分的内容说“冰箱的发明所作出的一个重要的贡献是…”,我们在解答概括大意部分的题时,已经了解到“市场销售/贸易”是“冰箱的贡献”, 对比剩下的选项, 判断B(冰箱促进了各种商品的销售)是答案。

  8. F。分析:空格前面部分的内容说“如果你停止使用冰箱, 至少你不会被…噪音所影响。”, 从搭配语意上直接选择F(当冰箱工作时产生的)。

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