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2015年职称英语考试知识解析:否定和倒装

日期:2014-12-30 13:56:38  

  2015年职称英语考试知识解析:否定和倒装

  在英语阅读中我们有时会遇到一些特殊的结构,比如:

  1.Young as he was, he faced(面对) the difficult situation(情况) calmly(平静地).

  Although he was young, he faced the difficult situation calmly.

  2.Very seldom will you find that two clocks or watches exactly(正好, 精确地) agree(一致).

  You will seldom find that two clocks or watches exactly agree.

  3. He failed to pass the examination in the end(最终).

  4. We can't be too careful in driving.

  (from Will we take vacations in space? 2004年版A级)

  After all, you can’t be too prepared for a trip to that galaxy (星系)far, far away. /我们为去往遥远的星系的旅行作的准备越充分越好

  l 倒装(inversion)

  英语中,通常是主语在谓语动词的前面, 是“主语+谓语”结构,这叫陈述语序,也称为正常语序,(normal order), 如果将谓语的全部或一部分放在主语之前, 就称为倒装语序(inverted order)。有的倒装语序把整个谓语动词放在主语之前, 称为完全倒装,有的只是谓语动词的一部分(通常是助动词,情态动词,系动词be或谓语的一部分)放在主语之前, 称为部分倒装.例如:

  正常语序 Her student stood by her side.

  倒装语序 By her side stood her student.

  正常语序 We have rarely found him in such a good mood.

  倒装语序 Rarely have we found him in such a good mood.

  一、全部倒装

  1.There be句型是一种全部倒装句,如:

  There are over a hundred elements (元素)in the world.

  有时为了生动地描写事物,其它一些表示存在意义的不及物动词也可用于此句型。这些动词有:exist, stand, live, remain, appear, come, happen, occur, rise等, 如:

  There stands (站立)a monument(纪念碑) at the center of (在...的中心)the square.广场中心立着一块纪念碑。

  There exist (存在)different opinions (意见)on this question.在这个问题上存在不同意见。

  2.以here, there, now, then, thus等引导的句子,习惯上主谓语全部倒装,其谓语动词通常是不带助动词或情态动词的不及物动词。例:

  Here is a ticket for you. 这里有你一张票。

  comp: A ticket is here for you.

  Now comes your turn(机会).现在该论到你了。

  Comp: Your turn comes now.

  Thus ended the lecture(演讲).这样演讲便结束了。

  The lecture thus ended.

  3.表示方向、地点的状语置于句首,而谓语又是表示运动的动词或表示存在的动词时,句子的主、谓语通常全部倒装。

  Down came the bird.

  Comp: The bird came down.

  On a hill in front of them stood a great castle(城堡).在他们面前的山上,耸立着一座巨大的城堡。

  Comp: A great castle stood on a hill in front of them.

  Away went a car like a flash(闪电).

  Comp: A car went away like a flash.

  这种表示方向、地点的词或词组有:up, down, away, in, out, off等。

  注意:主语是人称代词时一般不能倒装。如:

  Away they went.它来了。他们走了。

  4.有时表语前置或分词前置也构成全部倒装。例:

  Happy indeed(确实) are the young people of today.今天的年轻人实在幸福。

  二、部分倒装

  1.否定词或具有(半)否定意义的词语置于句首作为句首状语时,一般必须采用部分倒装语序。

  具有否定或半否定意义的词和词组有:no, never, seldom, little, few, rarely, hardly, never before, nowhere, no longer, no more, not until, not only, at no time(决不), in no way(决不), in/under no circumstances(决不), in no case(决不), on no account(决不), hardly…when, scarcely…when/before, no sooner……than, not only…but(also)等。如:

  Never before have I seen such a wonderful(奇妙的) park.我从来未看见过这样美丽的公园。

  Comp: I have never seen such a wonderful park before.

  No sooner had I gone out than it rained.我刚出去,就下雨了。

  Comp: I had no sooner (一但...立即)gone out than it rained.

  Seldom have I met him recently(最近). 最近我很少遇见他。

  Comp: I have seldom met him recently.

  Under no circumstances will we be the first to use nuclear weapons(核武器).无论在什么情况下我们都不会首先使用核武器。

  Comp: We will not be the first to use weapons under any circumstances.

  Not only did he refuse(拒绝) the gift, he also severely(严厉地) criticized (批评)the young sender.他不仅拒绝收礼,而且严厉地批评了年轻的送礼者。

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