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2015年职称英语考试知识解析:定语从句

日期:2014-12-30 13:56:39  

  2015年职称英语考试知识解析:定语从句

  在英语中能充当定语的“角色”很多,如:不定式结构,介词结构,动名词,分词(现在分词/过去分词),名词,形容词/复合形容词和定语从句。但这些结构在作定语时位置却未必都在所修饰词的前面,如:(选自C级难度的文章The White House)

  On the next其次的floor, there are three rooms named after the colors(过去分词短语作定语) that are used in them(定语从句): the Red Room, the Blue Room, and the Green Room. The walls are covered with silk cloth. There are many pieces of old furniture, from the time when the White House was first built(定语从句).

  (be named after…: 以…而命名)

  l 定语从句(Attributive Clause)

  在复合句中修饰名词或代词的从句称为定语从句。被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词,定语从句必须放在先行词之后。

  引导定语从句的词有两类:

  1、 关系代词:which, that, who, whom, whose

  2、 关系副词:when, where, why

  Ⅰ关系代词引出定语从句

  which, that代替事或物,在从句中做主语或宾语(作宾语时可省略)。Who, that代替人,在从句中who做主语,whom作宾语(可省略)。Whose代替人或物,在从句中做定语。如:

  1. The road which (that)leads to the small town has been widened.

  通往小镇的那条路已经加宽了。(which或that 在从句中做主语)

  (lead to (道路等)通往)

  2. I want the book that(which) you borrowed from the library.

  我想要你从图书馆借的那本书。(that或which在从句中作宾语)

  3. Students who (that)study hard are usually successful.

  学习努力的学生往往获得成就。(who或that在从句中做主语)

  4. The man whom( that )you are talking to is the dean大学的)院长,系主任of our department.

  与你交谈的那个人是我们的系主任。(whom, that 在从句中作宾语)

  (talk to sb. : 对某人说话)

  5. There have been only a few scientists whose work has changed man’s total view of the world.

  只有少数几位科学家的工作成果改变了人类整个对宇宙的看法。(whose指人,whose所在的结构在从句中做主语)

  提示:whose 引导定语从句,且whose所在的结构在从句中充当主语时, 可以按照句子的结构顺序进行翻译(whose 翻译成 “的”):

  e.g. a river whose banks are covered with trees 河的两岸由树覆盖者/ 河的两岸种植有树木。

  比较:

  6. The building whose roof we can see from here is the United Nations Headquarters.

  从我们这里能看见屋顶的那座楼是联合国总部。(whose指物,whose所在的结构在从句中做宾语)

  小节:

  1. 关系代词which, who, whom, that如果在从句中作宾语,可以省略;

  2. 关系代词在定语从句中做主语时,从句中谓语动词的人称和数必须与先行词一致,如上面的第(1)、(3)句。第(1)句 (The road which (that)leads to the small town has been widened.) 中先行词road是第三人称单数,所以从句谓语动词用leads; 第(3)句 (Students who (that)study hard are usually successful.) 中先行词students是第三人称复数,所以从句中谓语动词用study.

  3. 在用whom引出的定语从句中,如前面不带介词,可用who代替whom, 如上面第(4)句。

  4. 关系代词that和which在指物时,一般没什么区别,但在下列情况下一般用that;

  A.先行词为all, everything, nothing, anything, little等不定代词时。如:

  e.g. All (that)she lacked was training. 她唯一缺乏的就是锻炼。

  e.g. Everything(that)we saw at the exhibition was of great interest.

  我们展览会上看到的一切都很吸引人。

  B、先行词为序数词或形容词最高级所修饰时。如:

  e.g. The first things(that)you have to do is to register.

  你必须要做的第一件事是注册登记。

  e.g. This is the most exciting football game (that) I have ever seen.

  这是我看到最激动人心的足球比赛。

  Ⅱ关系副词引出的定语从句

  关系副词when指时间、where指地点,why指原因,她们引出的定语从句分别用来修饰表示时间、地点、原因的先行词如day, time, place, building, reason等。这些关系副词在从句中均做状语。例如:

  e.g. In the days when black and white TV sets were so widely used, no one realized how soon color TV sets would replace them. 在黑白电视机如此广泛使用的日子里,没有人意识到彩电会那么快取代它。

  e.g. How fast are we running now我们现在跑的速度怎么样? (多快)

  e.g. How often do you go there 你多久去那里一次? (多久一次)

  e.g. Ask him how he does it.问问他是怎样做的。

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