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2015年职称英语考试知识解析:名词性从句和状语从句

日期:2014-12-30 13:56:39  

  2015年职称英语考试知识解析:名词性从句和状语从句

  从句使用的目的: 为了表述比较复杂的语意;

  从句结构要在句子中充当某种语法功能;

  在一篇文章中各种从句结构常常是频繁出现,如:语言难度为C级的文章The Sea中的第一段:

  What do you know about the sea? We know that it looks very pretty(宾语从句) when the sun is shining on it(宾语从句中的时间状语从句)We also know that it can be very rough(宾语从句) when there is a strong wind. (宾语从句中的时间状语从句)What other things do we know about it?

  小结:

  从句通常有连词引导;

  有些从句结构与主句中的某些结构发生直接关系(如: 宾语从句等名词性从句), 有些从句与主句在语意上呈现明显的逻辑关系(如: 状语从句)

  这个段落中的从句结构与句子主句结构之间的关系清晰明了, 因此这些从句所在的复合句也很容易理解。 但有时候, 从句在句子所起的语法功能可能会由于句子使用了特殊的结构而变得不很清晰,如:

  形式主语结构:

  e.g. It was reported that the bank was robbed of more than one million dollars.

  主语从句

  e.g. It is certain that we shall succeed.

  主语从句

  rob sb./sth. of sth./盗劫某人…;抢夺某人…,使某人/某物丧失…

  特殊搭配结构:

  e.g. We take it that you would be appointed the director of the sales department.

  宾语从句

  sb. take it that … /某人以为…

  强调句型:

  e.g. It is the factory that we have been wanting to visit.

  e.g. It is I who am fortunate.

  有时从句与主句中的相关结构之间的关系还可能会由于在从句与主句之间插入了某些结构而变得不很清晰,如:

  I consider the news to be false that he was fired.

  从句结构作为职称英语考试中必须掌握的重要语法点, 在复习中我们要注意掌握引导各种从句结构的典型连词, 掌握从句结构在句子中所起的语法功能, 了解对引导从句结构的连词的处理, 了解在一些特殊句子结构中从句的使用。

  l 名词性从句(Noun Clause)

  一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句组成的句子称为复合句Complex sentence。主句是句子的主体,从句只用作句子的一个成分而从属于主句。从句种类由从句在句中所起的作用而定。充当主语、宾语、表语、同位语、定语和状语的从句分别称为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句、定语从句和状语从句。其中主语、宾语、表语和同位语从句在句中的作用相当于名词通常在句中所起的作用,因而统称为名词性从句(noun clause)。

  引导这些从句的词主要有三类:

  1. 从属连词:that (无词义,仅具有语法功能),whether (是否),if (是否)

  2. 连接代词:who, whom, whose, what, which

  3. 连接副词:when, where, why, how

  从属连词只起连接作用;连接代词和连接副词除可起连接作用外,还充当句中的某一成分。

  Ⅰ、主语从句 (Subject Clause)

  e.g. That the sea covers about three-fourths of the earth’s surface is well known.

  e.g. Which design is more practical is still a question.

  按照英语习惯,有些句子可用it作形式主语,放在句首,而将主语从句放在后面,使句子更为平衡。如上面的句子可改为:

  e.g. It is well known that the sea covers about three-fourths of the earth’s surface.

  e.g. It is still a question which design is more practical.

  小结:

  主语从句通常位于主语的位置上, 但是有时也可能出现在句子的末尾部分(句子的结构是形式主语的结构). 当句子的主语是从句结构时, 谓语部分应该使用单数的形式.

  Ⅱ、宾语从句 (Object Clause)

  宾语从句可以作动词或介词的宾语。

  e.g. They tell me (that) the math course is difficult.

  e.g. I wonder whether (if) the refrigerator is large enough.

  e.g. Please let me know when the telephone will be installed.

  e.g. He informed me of what they wanted.

  比较:

  e.g. Please inform him of the fact that I’ve seen her.

  注:

  1. 宾语从句通常紧跟在动词和介词的后面。

  2. 引导宾语从句的连词“that”在口语和非正式文体中常可省略。

  3. whether和if都可以表示“是否”的意思,在口语中常可以互换,如上面第2个例句,“I wonder”后面既可用“whether”也可以用“if”引出宾语从句,意思不变。但如果作为介词的宾语,或后面跟有“…or not”,或引出主语从句时,则只用whether而不用if,如:

  e.g. It all depends on whether we can get their cooperation.

  e.g. Tell me whether you like the handbag or not.

  e.g. Whether they will join us hasn’t been made clear.

  他们是否参加我们的活动还不清楚。

  Ⅲ、表语从句

  表语从句与系词(以及半系动词)一起构成主句的谓语结构。

  e.g. My problem is how we can reduce this high temperature.

  我的问题是我们怎么能够降低这样的高温。

  e.g. Our conclusion is that, in view of 由于the drought, there is only enough water for two days.

  for: 就…而言

  e.g. It is rather cold for January.

  e.g. She is clever for her age

  e.g. It seems that it is going to rain. 表语从句

  It seems that …好像,似乎

  It seems to me that …我想,我以为

  e.g. The cloth feels as if it were made of silk. 表语从句

  Ⅳ、同位语从句

  同位语从句用以说明名词的内容,使之明确而具体化。跟有同位语从句的名词通常是一些需要进一步说明其具体内容与含义的名词。如conclusion, doubt, fact, fear, hope, idea, news, opinion, suggestion等。从句通常由that引导,有时也可由whether, what, when, where, why, how等引出。

  e.g.There is no doubt that he will succeed.

  毫无疑问,他一定成功。

  e.g.My opinion that no action need be taken yet is shared by most of us here.

  我的意见是现在还不需要采取行动,这是我们这里大多数人的共识。

  They haven’t have any idea when it is proper to take action. 对于什么时候适合采取行动, 他们还没有任何想法. /他们还没有想出什么时候适合采取行动

  提示:

  在翻译的过程中对同位语从句常常可以采取的处理方式是: “添词”(在同位语从句和从句前的名词之间添加谓语动词)+ “结构转换”(把同位语从句转换成宾语从句的结构)(如: 上面第2个例句); 或者采用“词性转换法+ 结构转换法”(把同位语从句前面的名词转换成动词,这样同位语从句也就转换成宾语从句(如: 上面第3个例句)

  接下来我们看看实际考题中的句子:

  (2002年综合A级考题阅读理解第3篇文章)

  Effects of Environmental Pollution

  Two spectres haunting conservationists have been the prospect(给“预测”这个中性词添加上了词语色彩, 变成担心, 接着把名词“担心”变成动词的“担心”))that environmental pollution might lead to the planets' becoming unbearably hot or cold. One of these ghosts has now been laid, because it seems that even an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to eight times its present value will produce an increase in temperature of only 2C, which would take place over several thousand years.

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