您当前的位置:首页 >> 职称英语 >> 定语从句:2015年职称英语语法-11

定语从句:2015年职称英语语法-11

日期:2014-10-22 21:20:47  

  (一)什么叫定语从句?

  定语从句也称为"形容词从句",或"的从句",顾名思义,就是用来修饰或说明名词的从句,被修饰或说明的那个名词称为"先行词",即:

  名词(先行词) ← 连接词 + 句子

  由于汉语中的定语总是放在名词的前面,而英语中的定语从句总是放在被修饰或说明的名词后面,又要使用连接词加以连接,因此定语从句,特别是连接词的使用,成为中国学生学习的一个难点,也是考试的一个重点。

  要搞清定语从句,初学者必须首先建立以下基本概念:

  比较:我昨天买的那本书很有趣。

  The book that I bought yesterday is very interesting.

  昨天买的那本书很有趣。

  The book that was bought yesterday is very interesting.

  从以上句子可以看出:

  (1) 定语从句一定是修饰或说明"名词"的,上句中就是"the book"

  (2) 定语从句中的"连接词"就是前面那个名词的"化身", 一般都紧跟在名词的后面,上句中连接词"that"代表的就是前面的"the book",即that = the book;

  (3) 定语从句中的"连接词"必须在从句中充当一个句子成分(当主语、宾语或表语时称为关系代词;当地点、时间状语时称为关系副词),在上句中"that"当动词"bought"的宾语,也就是说,以下表达是错误的:

  The book that I bought it is very interesting.

  由于句中的"that"就是"bought"的宾语,因此"it"是多余的。这是考生在审题时要注意的一个问题。

  以上概念是理解定语从句的基础,在没有搞清以上基本概念之前,不要进入下一节内容。

  (二)什么叫限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句?

  先看一个句子:

  I have a brother who is an engineer.

  这个句子可以有两个解释:

  我有一个当工程师的兄弟。 或

  我有一个兄弟,他是个工程师。

  第一个句子称为限制性定语从句,说明"我至少有有两个兄弟,其中一个是工程师",以便与另一个兄弟(或许他是个医生)相区分。所以,限制性定语从句也称为修饰性定语从句,在先行词(brother)与关系代词 (who) 之间一般没有","号分开。

  第二个句子称为非限制性定语从句,说明"我只有一个兄弟,他是个工程师".所以,非限制性定语从句也称为说明性定语从句,中间一般有","号分开,特别是考试的时候。

  该句一般写为:I have a brother, who is an engineer.

  注意:凡说明世界上独一无二事物的都是非限制性定语从句,不管中间有没有","号,例如:

  Mt. Tai which is located in Shandong Province attracts thousands of tourists every year.

  (泰山位于山东省,每年吸引着成千上万的旅游者。)

  按语法规定,这里的"which"是不能用"that"来代替的,为什么?见1.3节

  (三)怎么连接?

  关键是看先行名词(被修饰或说明的那个名词)在从句中充当什么成分(主语、宾语、表语?状语?定语?)这是能否辨别定语从句和能否正确选择连接词的关键所在。

  (在从句中)当主语、宾语、表语时:

  ↗ 人 → who (宾格用whom)

  限制性定语从句:that

  ↘ 物 → that ( = which)

  注意:虽然在限制性定语从句中,关系代词that = which, 但是,当:

  (1) 先行词是all, both, none, nothing, anything, everything, much, such等不定代词时;

  (2) 先行词被形容词最高级修饰时;

  (3) 先行词被序数词(如第一,第二等)修饰时;

  (4) 先行词被the very, the only, any, no等词修饰时

  只能用that,不能用which连接。

  也就是说,在限制性定语从句中,连接物的关系代词用"that" 总是对的。

  这是考试判题的重要思路。不一定要刻意去死背硬记上面四条具体的规则。

  ↗人 → who (宾格用whom)

  非限制性定语从句:

  ↘物 → which (不要用that)

  注意:非限制性定语从句(连接词前面一般有","号)中,不会出现"that"
   记住上述要点了吗?做几道题,巩固一下上面所讲的内容:

  尽量不要查字典!

  1)The book ______ is now out of stock

  A. which he bought it last week

  B. which he bought last week

  C. which he had bought last week

  D. which it was bought last week

  解题思路:如果你选择了A或D,说明你对"句子成分"的概念,或对关系代词在句子中可以做什么成分还不清楚,应该好好复习"什么叫定语从句?"一节;如果选C,说明你对时态概念仍不清楚,再复习"过去完成时"一节;正确答案为B,"which"在从句中做动词bought的宾语。这里能不能将"which"改成"that"呢?当然可以,而且现在更多的是用"that".实际使用中,该句子中的"which"或"that"可以省掉,即:The book he bought last week is now out of stock. (他上周买的那本书现在脱销。) ,即:当关系代词在从句中当宾语时,可以省掉。

  2) He is the man ______ is capable of finishing this task.

  A. he

  B. whom

  C. who

  D. which

  解题思路:正确答案为C,关系代词在从句中当主语,故选择主格who而不是whom;任何A、D选择说明学生缺乏最基本的语法概念,应补最基础的语法课。

  3)The only thing _____ can be done is to stop them from going there.

  A. which

  B. that

  C. what

  D. who

  解题思路:记住:定语从句中永远不可能出现what做连接词, 记住这句话对理解"名词性从句"会大有帮助; 既然先行词为thing(事情), 就不能用who连接;同时出现"which"和"that",又没有","号,当然选B(the only thing只能用 that连接,不能用 which连接)。下面一题的思路是一样的:

  4)All ______ is a continuous supply of the basic necessities of life.

  A. which is needed

  B. that is needed

  C. what is needed

  D. is needed

  正确答案是:B 注意:all that = what, 不可能出现all what

  5) Some of the roads have been flooded(淹没), ______ our journey more difficult.

  A. it makes

  B. they make

  C. which makes

  D. which make

  解题思路:四个答题中有两个区分点:第一个区分点是:C、D都用了连接词"which",而A、B没有用,根据"逗号不能连接两个句子"的原则,A、B肯定不对;第二个区分点是:C、D中,动词一个用单数形式makes,一个用复数形式,这里应选择C.为什么?非限制性定语从句中,除了说明先行的某个名词外,还可以说明整个句子的内容,此时动词用单数形式。全句意思:有的路已被洪水淹没,这使我们的旅行更加困难。"which"代表"有的路已被洪水淹没"这件事情。

  考试时,当出现类似形式的题目而确实又看不懂句子意思时,应倾向于选择which + 单数动词的那个选项。

  6)They have made another wonderful discovery, ______ of great importance to science.

  A. which I think is

  B. I think which is

  C. which I think it is

  D. I think of which is

  解题思路:英语中的连接词一般都是放在从句的最前面,据此,可以排除B、D选项;A、C的区分点是"it", 想一下本节的第一题,就能正确选择答案A了。此类题目中,I think应理解为"插入语",要熟悉这种形式,

  又如:

  He is the man ______ I suppose is capable of finishing this task.

  该题应填who而不是whom

  (在从句中)当状语时:关系副词where及when

  where : 当先行名词在从句中当"地点状语"时,用关系副词where连接

  例如:

  The crime rate rises in cities where the unemployment rate increases. (失业率高的城市犯罪率也高。) 句中的where = in cities, 表示行为发生的地点。

  这里的要点是能否区分是用that (which)还是用 where, 即:是做"主语、宾表语",还是做"地点状语",例如:

  I love the small town that we visited last week.

  句中"town"做动词"visited"的宾语,即"参观过的小镇",故用that连接。

  I love the small town where I lived during my childhood.

  句中"town" 是动词"lived"的地点,即"童年时住过的小镇",故用where.

  这也是定语从句的一个考点。

  when : 当先行名词在从句中当"时间状语"时,用关系副词when连接, 例如:

  July is the month when we have a lot of rain. (七月是多雨的月份。)

  注意"when"定语从句后推的现象,例如:

  I think (that) the day will finally come when air pollution can be put under control. (我认为空气污染得以控制的一天最终会来到。)

  放在主句后面作非限制定语从句时(前面一般加","号),"when"一般译为"此时","那时", 例如:

  The meeting will be put off until next month, when we will have made all the preparations. (会议将推迟到下月,那时一切就准备就绪了。)

  另一个关系副词是why,由于它固定与the reason搭配, 即: the reason why,不难理解,一般也不作为考试的重点。例如:

  This is the reason why the electronic computer cannot entirely replace man. 这就是(为什么)电子计算机不能完全代替人的原因。

  whose (= of which / whom):做先行词(不管是人还是物)的定语,汉语为"…的",不要考虑是否是限制性或非限制性定语从句, 例如:

  Pay attention to that boy whose temperature is very high. (理论上也可以写成:Pay attention to that boy the temperature of whom is very high. 注意那个男孩,他的体温很高。(非限制性) / 注意那个体温很高的男孩。(限制性)

  介词 + which (whom)

  先看两个句子:

  This is the house. He has lived in the house for over 30 years.

  变为↓定语从句

  This is the house in which he has lived for over 30 years.

  上述句子中,先行词在从句中充当介词宾语,形成"介词 + which / whom"的形式,考试时要求作出1)要不要介词;2)若要,使用什么介词的判断。由于英语中介词搭配多为习惯用法,没有多少规律可循,因此这是定语从句考试的一个难点。

  记住四个字:瞻前顾后

  瞻前:先看看先行词一般与什么介词搭配,例如:

  There are occasions _____ which joking is not permissible.

  → Joking is not permissible _____ (certain) occasions.

  常与occasion搭配的介词是什么?on,即:

  Joking is not permissible on (certain) occasions. (有的场合是不容许开玩笑的。)

  ↓

  There are occasions on which joking is not permissible.

  顾后:看看谓语动词常与什么介词搭配,例如:

  This car, ____ which I paid a lot of money, is now out of date.

  → I paid a lot of money ______ this car.

  Pay (money) for something 是一个固定的搭配,因此应填介词 "for"

  当A、B、C、D中出现 " 介词 + which / whom" 选项时,而你又确实看不懂时,应倾向于选择" 介词 + which / whom"的形式,例如:

  The two elements _____ water is made are the gases oxygen and hydrogen.

  A. that

  B. which

  C. with which

  D. of which

  倾向选择C、D;正确答案D,"be made of "(由…组成):

  The two elements are gases (oxygen and hydrogen).

  Water is made of the two elements.

  两个句子一合并,便是该句选择。

  (四)其他应注意的确问题:

  (1) 同位语从句只能用"that"连接

  常见的同位语先行词有:fact(事实), possibility(可能), idea(想法), belief(相信), doubt(疑问), news(消息), order(命令), promise(承诺), evidence(证据), suggestion(建议)等,例如:

  Is there any possibility that all the villagers can send their children to school?(有没有这种可能,所有村民都能送他们的孩子上学?)

  There can be no doubt that he is a qualified doctor.(毫无疑问,他是个合格的医生。)

  (2) "as" 也可以做关系代词用于连接定语从句,特别是在"such…as…", "the same as…" 以及"正如…"的结构中,例如:

  I have never seen a thing as he described. (我从未见过他所描述的那种事。)

  As was expected, the performance was a great success. (正如所料,演出获得了巨大成功。)

  把该句理解为:The performance was a great success, which was expected,就比较容易理解as的这种用法。

  将定语从句的连接用三句话归纳一下:

  ↗ 人用who / whom

  (1)先行词在从句中当主、宾、表语 →定语用whose

  ↘ 物用that (= which)/ 非限制用which

  ↗地点状语用:where

  (2)先行词在从句中当 →原因状语(reason)用:why

  ↘ 时间状语用:when

  (3)介词 + which / whom结构:瞻前顾后

Copyright © 2003 - 2014 www.passeasy.net All Rights Reserved 学练网版权所有